Varicose veins of the lower extremities – chronic pathology, the thinning of the venous walls, the increase in the circulation of the light strip and the formation of papular extensions.
The disease is 15-17% of the adult population. In adulthood, the disease is diagnosed more often in women, which is associated with hormonal changes in the body (menopause, pregnancy, Menstruation).
Varicose veins in the legs shows extensive clinic. The patients complain of a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the extremities, fatigue, swollen ankles, cramps in the night, the blue veins. For pathology on the background of the lack of adequate treatment leads to various complications.
Causes and risk factors of varicose veins of the lower extremities
Varicose veins of the lower extremities in most of the paintings is a consequence of genetic predisposition. The immediate cause: the functional immaturity of the valves of the veins and development Element of the connective tissue of the vessels. This leads to increased strain within the blood vessels and the formation of varicose veins.
The etiology is due to the innate factors, the associated with a hypercoagulable state – increased blood clotting. Against the background of the injury, blood clots are formed, the leads against the full-fledged circulation in the legs, to a pathological enlargement of the venous strips of light.
Common cause for the development of the disease in women – hormonal disorder. It is based on the change in the concentration of sex hormones in the blood. Associated with the onset of menopause and pregnancy.
Causes of varicose veins of the legs:
- The extra weight. Obesity has pronounced a mechanical effect on the venous wall, are particularly strong, this can be seen on the background of the abdominal type. As a result, the Patient increased venous pressure;
- Diabetes mellitus. Due to the complex disturbances of the metabolic processes associated with constantly high blood sugar and a relative lack of Insulin, a decrease in the elasticity of the walls of the venous subsequent extension;
- Alcohol dependence. Alcoholism body fluid is missing, the blood becomes thicker, which leads to disorders of blood circulation;
- Professional factors (to remain permanently in an upright Position, excessive physical strain, lack of exercise);
- Wearing uncomfortable shoes, for example High Heels;
- Severe pathology of cardiovascular system, the failure cycle.
The legs can chronic pathology of the genital organs, varicose veins. In particular, the inflammation of the prostate gland in men and the appendages in women.
The mechanism of development of disease based on the involvement in the inflammatory process, the smallest veins, leading to their swelling and obstruction of blood flow.
Signs and symptoms of varicose veins
Varicose veins of the legs, a variety of symptoms manifested. We begin with the exterior changes. So, this is a clear sign of the emergence of the disease, is the Transformation of the contour and shape of the subcutaneous vessels of the legs. Bloating manifested, thickened nodule. The vessels are dark in color, spider veins and asterisk.
Trophic ulcers are seen on the feet of two pages. Part of the clinicians wounds are one of the symptoms, to consider other complications, pathology, about the past – even an advanced stage of the pathological process.
Classification of varicose veins of the legs
Varicose veins of the legs most often Mature women than men of this age have been diagnosed. At a young age, the disease in boys and girls is shown with the same frequency. In accordance with the classification, the disease is the primary and secondary in nature. In the first case, pathological changes in the vessels of the superficial. Disorders of the structure and the structure of the deep vessels are missing.
Secondary varices are a complication of diseases of the deep veins, resulting in the observed negative changes in the superficial vessels of the legs. This image is manifested on the background of congenital disorders of the venous system and also as a consequence of phlebothrombosis.
Also diseases classified clinical forms. To varicose veins lateral vessels of the lower leg and thigh, reticular Form of telangiectasias and varicose veins. They consider this Form more:
- Varicose veins lateral veins is as an independent disease, or in combination with other pathologies. Backward jump venous fluid enters the vessels in a deep vein with the help of subcutaneous and the surrounding blood.
- Offset (reticular Form) manifests itself as a stand-alone pathology. Leads to venous insufficiency, is a purely cosmetic defect.
- Varicose veins telangiectasia are also a cosmetic defect.
In recent years, the surgical venous insufficiency, idiopathic Form. It is not to be found of an increased venous tone, point of view, may this open cause for this injury. Clinical manifestations of the pathology does not differ from the classical clinic.
The stage and the degree of varicose veins
Varicose veins on the leg varies depending on stage and grade. For the construction of such things, the clinic taken into account in a patient. A chronic disease of several stages that a certain differences:
|Compensation||Pain syndrome weak or it does not work. The patients complain of pain in the legs due to the long standing. It is celebrated in the presence of vascular net on the skin, at regular intervals, the swelling of the ankle joint, soon after the Rest.|
|Subcompensation||In the case of the visual examination of the lower extremities of the patient visible in Vienna with a pathological streak of light. The patients have many complaints. In particular, they complain of persistent pain Expander nature, fatigue, feeling of heaviness in the legs. In the night, muscle twitching often arise, "goose bumps" on the skin. Swelling observed after a night's sleep in 90% of cases, self-leveled.|
|Decompensation||The toughest stage of the varicose veins. Enter changes on the part of the skin of the ceiling. He is excessively dry, the hair on the legs. In addition, Hyper pigmentation revealed, which leads to an abnormal thickening of the subcutaneous tissue. To heal cracks and scratches on the legs for a long time, in the location of the wounds. Feet do not swell constantly, rest and sleep help. Edema tend to rise higher in the legs.|
If a girl or guy come to the doctor with complaints on the described symptoms, a doctor performs a visual inspection, arranging laboratory tests and methods of instrumental diagnostics. On the basis of the results obtained, say about the Form, stage and degree of the pathology.
Degree of the legs varicose veins. Zero (0) – clinic, external changes are absent; I – swelling, constant fatigue, limbs; II – the constant swelling, accompanied by Hyper-pigmentation, abnormal sealing of the subcutaneous tissue; III – the pain, the swelling of the legs, trophic ulcers.
Complications of venous insufficiency
Varicose veins – an incurable chronic disease, so as to prevent the treatment pursuing certain goals – Pause Progression and complications. If the assigned treatment is wrong or the Patient did not turn for help to a doctor, develop complications of the disease.
Thrombophlebitis – inflammation of the walls of the veins in the presence of a blood clot. In the inflammatory process into the surrounding vessels and soft parts are drawn. There are several forms. Is sharp (it takes about 30 days), subacute – duration up to six months and chronic.
Migratory Thrombophlebitis is rare. It is characterized by inflammation that occurs in various locations in Vienna, quickly passes.
- Optically visible a clear outline of the inflamed vessel.
- Acute pain, on Palpation, is the pain stronger.
- Swollen nodules, protruding above the skin.
- Locally increased temperature.
Thrombophlebitis with varicose veins of the legs can lead to other complications. As periphlebitis inflammation of the surrounding tissue, with a wet gangrene of the extremities, thrombosis of the deep veins. In the case of the spread of the inflammatory complications beyond the extremities – thrombosis and Sepsis.
Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of the legs varicose veins. Pathology is characterized by the formation of dense blood clots that completely or partially the blood clogged vessel is in breach of the complete blood circulation. In these complications, the risk of death as a result of detachment of the Thrombus.
Trophic ulcers appear in severe cases. Often the infectious process closes that aggravated the clinical picture. Wounds not only material, but also the deeper layers of the muscles. Heal for a long time. For a comprehensive treatment.
Varicose eczema is marked by symptoms:
- Inflammatory Hyper pigmentation of the skin, purple or bright red;
- Formed microvesicles, the open regardless;
- Severe swelling of the legs;
- Itching of the skin, which are constantly monitored;
- Oozing, covered after drying of the rind.
- Abnormal thickening of the skin.
Varicose eczema can go into a chronic course, resulting in the hardening of the skin and subcutaneous tissue manifests itself.
The accession of infection, trophic ulcers, eczema complicated.
The conservative treatment of varicose veins of the legs
Conservative therapy of varicose veins includes the drug treatment and the wearing of compression underwear. Compression stockings class differs in compression and the purpose is for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Tights, stockings and knee-high socks, the doctor must pick up, taking into account the special features. The right underwear gives the desired result.
Prescribed Medication. Perfect effective drugs, the effects on all the pathological elements of disease, does not exist. We recommend the use of systemic medications – tablets and local means – gels, balms, creams and ointments.
In addition, prescribed physical therapy – magnetic field therapy, electrophoresis; special gymnastics. You can help traditional Mediterranean recipes with herbs to reduce the severity of the symptoms.
Sometimes it is leech therapy – leeches treatment is recommended.
Methods of surgical treatment
If conservative methods to give a small result, the disease progresses, we recommend the implementation of the Operation. Often sclerotherapy is practiced. In the veins with a special substance injected, which sticks to the affected vessel. In the course of time, replaced by connective tissue.
Radio-Frequency Ablation. In this surgical procedure, the blood vessel (the patient) is "welding", by means of a probe, which radiates the waves. The probe heats the walls, which causes stenosis. After the Intervention some of the time, the wearing of compression clothing.
The choice of the type of help the Patient surgeon depends of many criteria. The doctor takes into account the stage of the disease, the patient's condition, the presence of chronic diseases, which is a contraindication for the implementation of the Intervention.
Other types of operative treatment:
- Phlebotomy physician removes the affected veins and vessels. Through a small puncture of the skin of the tool is injected with a hook, by the ship moved. This technique is combined with surgery and Laser application.
- The most effective type of treatment is called the Laser coagulation of the veins of the lower extremities. The methodology of the implementation of the Operation with mini cuts and injuries paint. Through a small puncture on the skin is introduced into the vessel, super fine Postings, radiates the waves to the right frequency. In the Zone of influence of the warming observed. The walls fused, which allows the Problem to neutralize.
The stripping is carried out with the help of a small probe, which is inserted through an incision and stick the affected part of Vienna. Cryostripping – in the pathological vessel, liquid nitrogen is not introduced substance, leading to the destruction of the area, the later functionality.
Preventive measures are of great importance. The prognosis depends not only on the right doctor's appointments and treatment, but also from the patient – exactly what you need to change your life style to strictly follow the recommendations flebologa.
So the constant wearing of the compression of the bed linen or dressing material extremity with an elastic bandage. According to the reviews of the patients, the first variant is more convenient. After the surgical procedure, a constant requires physical activity, but without excessive strain on the body.
During sleep, it is recommended that the feet in an elevated position. These links are on a cushion or folded blanket. To accelerate when the work in connection with the standing or sitting, then every 60 to 80 minutes in a little warm-up, the blood circulation in the body.
Women should stop wearing shoes with high heels. The maximum heel height should be 5 cm in All patients is necessary to bring comfortable shoes, clothing dispense, the pressure on the limb.
Varicose veins on the legs – a serious disease that requires a multifaceted approach in the treatment. Only a complex action, consisting of medicines, clothes, asked, physical therapy, motor activity and proper nutrition leads to a positive result and a stable Remission.