Varicose veins of the lower extremities are a chronic disease that is manifested by a violation of the mechanism of blood outflow in the veins. As a result, the vein walls are under constant pressure, gradually thinning, and nodular enlargements are formed on the veins.
As a result of the congestion of blood in the veins of the lower extremities, varicose veins develop. It manifests itself in a swelling of the peripheral leg veins and their bulging under the skin. The veins look tortuous and take on a bluish hue. There is severe aching pain in the legs.
Varicose vein disease progresses without treatment and is complicated by thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers. Treatment for varicose veins should be started at the first symptoms to prevent the development of the disease.
To treat varicose veins in the legs, doctors initially use conservative methods. If these don't produce results, they resort to surgical treatment.
Physiotherapy methods play an important role in the treatment of varicose veins on the legs. The main ones are as follows:
- Lymphatic drainage;
- Hyperbaric oxygen supply;
- Magnetic therapy;
- Exposure to ultraviolet light;
- UHF and others.
The best known procedure is darsonvalization. It is carried out with a special device that creates weak electrical discharges. For each limb, move it from the bottom to the top along the legs for 15 minutes. The course of treatment for varicose veins is about 20 sessions (depending on the degree of development of the disease). As a result, the vascular tone normalizes, the lymphatic drainage and the microcirculation in the legs improve.
Pulse magnetotherapy is performed with a generator of magnetic fields that induce electrical eddy currents in the tissues of the lower extremities, which have a therapeutic effect. This effect stimulates and tightens the muscle fibers in the vascular walls in the legs. This improves blood flow to the extremities, reduces swelling and relieves pain. Depending on the degree of development of the varicose veins, the session lasts 10 to 20 minutes.
Pneumatic compression also helps restore the tone of veins and blood vessels through a type of massage. A boot-like device is placed on the patient's leg. It is pressurized by the gas supply. However, the method should be discarded in patients with varicose veins that are prone to thrombosis.
Balneotherapy is an effective method of treating varicose veins on the leg, which consists in taking baths with mineral water. Baths themselves are appointed locally or generally. Hydrotherapy is a contrasting local bath. These methods are especially effective in the early stages of the disease. Manifestations of varicose veins to treat these methods at this stage are very effective.
In addition to local physiotherapy procedures, others that affect the entire body as a whole are also performed. For example, oxygen in the bubble bath improves blood circulation and alleviates the symptoms of varicose veins on the legs. Hyperbaric oxygen supply is helpful. During the session, the patient inhales pure oxygen at a pressure greater than one and a half atmospheres.
Ozone therapy is related to this method. Inhaling ozone activates many processes in the patient's body: microcirculation improves, metabolism normalizes, and regeneration is accelerated. In therapeutic doses, ozone also prevents thrombus formation, easily thins the blood. Treatment of varicose veins with ozone is 5 - 10 procedures with an interval of 2 days.
Physiotherapy is particularly effective in the early and middle stages of the disease. Physiotherapeutic procedures should be prescribed by a phlebologist.
Medicines to combat varicose veins on the legs are of minor importance. They are the key to successful treatment and high efficiency of the main method. Drugs are prescribed during physiotherapy and other conservative methods of treatment, as well as after surgery.
There are many drugs available to treat varicose veins. They can be used in combination or separately. A phlebologist should appoint an appropriate one. All drugs can be divided into several groups:
Phlebotonics allow you to increase the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins, so they are effective in treating varicose veins on the leg. The walls are getting stronger and denser. The effect of treatment with other methods is fixed. The blood circulation in the legs improves, the lymph drainage improves. They are prescribed in preparation for an operation and as rehabilitation afterwards to relieve phlebitis with varicose veins.
Anticoagulants are drugs that reduce the ability of the blood to clot. This prevents the formation of blood clots, which is of great importance in the case of varicose veins of the leg. They can be taken as tablets or injections. Taking them without consulting a doctor is dangerous as they have one side effect - bleeding that is difficult to stop.
Decongestants can be taken orally as tablets or topically as gels and ointments. In the form of tablets, diuretics are mainly used. Such drugs significantly reduce the pain in the legs with varicose veins, as well as the additional pressure on the walls of the veins. Their use improves blood circulation.
Disaggregants - However, drugs that also affect blood clotting are not considered anticoagulants. They only stop the coagulation process in the earliest stages and therefore do not belong to the group of anticoagulants. They do not significantly affect the indicators of general coagulation. As an additional therapy for varicose veins, they have the same effect as anticoagulants.
Antioxidants have a detoxifying effect. By restoring the chemical bonds in the cells, the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins is strengthened. As a result, the healing of varicose veins on the leg is much faster.
Fibrinolytics prevent blood clots. This is due to the destruction of fibrin, which is part of the blood clot. Using a drug from this group allows blood plasminogen (an inactive protein) to take the form of plasmin, which causes the destruction of a blood clot. However, taking this drug does not prevent further thrombosis with varicose veins.
The pharmaceutical company has developed a whole range of drugs that combine the properties of several of the groups described. Such drugs should be prescribed by a doctor and taken strictly under his supervision. This is because they have some side effects.
Taking medication for varicose veins on the legs may not be the only measure. They are prescribed in conjunction with other treatments.
This is an effective way to treat varicose veins in the legs. The principle of operation of the laser in this disease lies in its effect on hemoglobin. Hemoglobin absorbs laser light and heat is generated in the blood. This "seals" the damaged vessel. The laser also indirectly affects the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins because it causes these walls to spasm. The advantage of such an impact is its accuracy. It only affects certain tissues without affecting the surrounding tissues in any way.
After exposure to the laser, blood stops moving through the treated area. The blood supply to this part of the limb is through deeper veins. In the "non-working" part of the vessel, connective tissue forms, which dissolves over time.
The advantage of this method of getting rid of varicose veins is the minimal trauma. The patients do not feel any discomfort or pain after the procedure. In addition, there are other advantages:
- Unlike surgery, the method does not require any skin incisions. This means that no scars remain afterwards. There are also no bruises after the procedure;
- The procedure is short and performed under local anesthesia. For this reason, unlike surgical procedures which are performed under general anesthesia, it is as safe as possible for health;
- From a financial point of view, laser treatment for varicose veins is similar to surgery. Although it seems more expensive, it must be taken into account that the patient will not have to go through a rehabilitation period afterwards and will have to stay on sick leave for a long time or spend money on recovery.
Many diseases can be cured with the laser. It has become a good alternative to many types of procedures. Minimal trauma, freedom from pain and effectiveness - all of these make laser treatment preferable in many situations.
Sclerotherapy is a popular method of treating varicose veins on the legs, sometimes called physical therapy. Essentially, special drugs are injected into the veins. The method is not traumatic and effective and therefore popular. This method is sometimes comparable in effectiveness to a laser and even a surgical procedure. After such an operation, the vascular walls are glued and reinforced, which can help fight varicose veins in the legs. And the drug is absorbed by the body.
The main advantage of the method of getting rid of the disease is the absence of scars and bruises after the procedure. It is also important that it is not too painful and that it can be performed under local anesthesia. After the procedure, the integrity of the circulatory system is not violated, since the veins are not removed. Such an intervention can be an ideal option both when it is dangerous to use surgical methods - in thrombophlebitis, periphlebitis, and in the treatment of relapses of the disease, when the veins are fragile and twisted.
The method has a number of contraindications. First and foremost, this is pregnancy and breastfeeding. Serious diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver and kidney diseases, allergies - all of these also become a contraindication to sclerotherapy. It is better to think about how to treat varicose veins of the legs differently.
When prescribing sclerotherapy, the doctor should be made aware of possible contraindications. When a patient has chronic illnesses of any kind, the possibility of sclerotherapy remains in question.
Surgery is a traumatic and painful way to effectively treat severe varicose veins in the legs. However, only its efficiency reaches 100%. In addition, it sometimes takes significantly less time than anyone else. Of the minuses, one can name large scars and scars, a long period of rehabilitation. There are several types of surgical interventions:
- Stripping involves removing a section of a vein with a thin probe. It is injected at the beginning of the vein and withdrawn at the end. In this case, the area attached to the probe turns around, so to speak, and can easily be removed;
- Phlebectomy is a traditional surgical method used to treat varicose veins that involves cutting the tissue with a scalpel. It is carried out when a minimally invasive procedure is not possible, for example in the case of large areas or severe inflammation, as well as for other indications;
- The microflebectomy is considered a minimally invasive procedure. Helps treat varicose veins effectively. In terms of the method of execution, it is similar to the previous method, only the incisions in the skin are very small. So it's less traumatic. It can be done when the lesion is not as severe and there is no need to remove a large section of the vein.
This method has a number of indications and contraindications. Pregnant women and women who have recently given birth cannot be disturbed. After giving birth, you need to wait at least a month and a half. You should also not use this method in the early stages of varicose veins.
Surgical intervention is not a guarantee that varicose veins on the leg will not recur. You should take care of your health.
Many methods of curing varicose veins on the legs allow the doctor to choose the best one for each individual case. However, the more the disease begins, the more radical the method must be chosen. Therefore, if you notice the first symptoms of varicose veins on your leg, you should not hesitate to see a doctor.